Scientists provide new insight on how gene expression is controlled

Phys.org | January 08, 2019

Researchers have provided new insight into the mechanism underlying the control of gene expression in all living organisms, according to a study published today in eLife. The findings, first reported on bioRxiv, could ultimately improve our understanding of how certain antibacterial drugs work against the enzyme RNA polymerase (RNAP) in treating conditions such as Clostridium difficile infections and tuberculosis. Gene expression occurs when the information contained in DNA is used to produce functional gene products such as proteins and other molecules. The process has two stages. In the first stage, called transcription, RNAP reads the information in a strand on DNA, which is then copied into a new molecule of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA). In the second stage, the molecule then moves on to be processed or translated.
However, to help control gene expression levels, transcriptional pausing by RNAP can occur between the two stages, providing a kind of 'roadblock' where transcription may be terminated or modulated. "A consensus pause sequence that acts on RNAPs in all organisms, from bacteria to mammals, halts the enzyme in an elemental paused state from which longer-lived pauses can arise," explains senior author Robert Landick, Charles Yanofsky Professor of Biochemistry & Bacteriology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, US. "As the fundamental mechanism of this elemental pause is not well defined, we decided to explore this using a variety of biochemical and biophysical approaches."

Spotlight

Plant viruses can be serious pathogens in crops as they can cause anywhere from minor losses to total crop failure. Viruses can be transmitted to crops in a number of ways ranging from contaminated tools to seed and pollen infections. But the primary mechanism of virus transmission is by arthropod vectors1,2 such as mites and insects.

Spotlight

Plant viruses can be serious pathogens in crops as they can cause anywhere from minor losses to total crop failure. Viruses can be transmitted to crops in a number of ways ranging from contaminated tools to seed and pollen infections. But the primary mechanism of virus transmission is by arthropod vectors1,2 such as mites and insects.

Related News

INDUSTRIAL IMPACT

BeiGene Announces Strategic Research Collaboration with InnoRNA to Jointly Discover Novel mRNA Therapies

InnoRNA and BeiGene | July 07, 2022

BeiGene a global, science-driven biotechnology company focused on developing innovative and affordable medicines to improve treatment outcomes and access for patients worldwide, announced it entered into a worldwide strategic collaboration with InnoRNA, a biotechnology company with expertise in LNP-based delivery technology and mRNA drug discovery, to leverage its innovative technology platform for developing mRNA-based therapeutics. “As a global biotechnology company, BeiGene is committed to delivering next-generation therapies through our own internal discovery engine and leveraging cutting-edge technology from experienced and innovative partners. This collaboration with InnoRNA advances and supports our research efforts in the important field of mRNA therapies while securing critical, proprietary delivery tools.” Lai Wang, Ph.D., Global Head of R&D at BeiGene Under the terms of the agreement, InnoRNA will receive an upfront cash payment and will be eligible to receive additional payments based upon the achievement of certain development, regulatory, and commercial milestones, as well as tiered royalties, for the mRNA-LNP research collaboration programs. BeiGene will hold exclusive global development and commercialization rights for the mRNA-LNP therapies jointly discovered by InnoRNA and BeiGene. InnoRNA will receive an additional upfront cash payment and is eligible for additional milestone payments for granting BeiGene non-exclusive license to its proprietary LNP Technology platform. “We are very excited to partner with BeiGene to discover and develop innovative mRNA therapies as well as contribute our LNP technology to BeiGene’s internal research,” said Linxian Li, Ph.D., Founder and Chief Executive Officer of InnoRNA. “As evidenced by the success of multiple Covid-19 vaccines, mRNA and LNPs will likely play a major role in the future of drug development, potentially in broad fields beyond vaccines. Joining this collaboration with BeiGene represents a big step forward toward this vision for our company.” About InnoRNA InnoRNA is a platform-based biotechnology company focused on developing innovative mRNA and LNP technologies to produce therapeutic proteins rapidly and accurately in cells. Faced with the challenge of delivering mRNA into the right cells, the existing carriers have been unable to maximize the potential of mRNA as a therapeutic tool to generate disease-fighting proteins. InnoRNA developed the proprietary Diversity-Oriented LNP platform to deliver mRNA safely and effectively into the cell of interest. The commercialization of this innovation presents a revolutionary step towards delivering effective and safe clinical mRNA treatments for societies everywhere. About BeiGene BeiGene is a global, science-driven biotechnology company focused on developing innovative and affordable medicines to improve treatment outcomes and access for patients worldwide. With a broad portfolio of more than 40 clinical candidates, we are expediting development of our diverse pipeline of novel therapeutics through our own capabilities and collaborations. We are committed to radically improving access to medicines for two billion more people by 2030. BeiGene has a growing global team of over 8,000 colleagues across five continents.

Read More

MEDICAL

Hillstream BioPharma to Announce Collaborating with Sapien Biosciences

Hillstream | June 30, 2022

Hillstream BioPharma, Inc., a U.S.-based biotechnology company developing novel therapeutic candidates targeting ferroptosis for cancer treatment, announced a collaboration with an Indian pioneer biobank and peonalized medicine company that leverages Saarum Innovation's global life sciences research expertise, Sapien Biosciences. The collaboration is aimed at assessing the compatibility of HSB-1216 with immune checkpoint inhibitors. HSB-1216, Hillstream’s most advanced candidate, is an IMCD modulator that targets various types of solid tumors. In an exhaustive study in Germany, the active drug in HSB-1216 was found to be efficacious in a clinical pilot for devastating cancers, including epithelial carcinomas and triple-negative breast cancer. Hillstream aims to build an early clinical proof-of-concept by beginning a clinical investigation with HSB-1216 in 2022. With this collaboration, Hillstream will be able to use Sapien’s patient samples and rich datasets to validate its HSB-1216 for the development of novel cancer therapeutics. We are initiating studies, in collaboration with Sapien Biosciences, to determine the synergy between HSB-1216, our ferroptosis inducer and nivolumab, an anti-PD1 antibody.” He stated, “In addition, we will also study the potential synergistic effects of HSB-1216 with the recently approved Bristol Myers Squibb drug Opdualag® (nivolumab + relatlimab), a fixed dose combination of an anti-PD1 MAb + anti-LAG3 MAb, to demonstrate that targeting a ferroptosis-associated metabolism in tumors may improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy.” Randy Milby, Hillstream’s Chief Executive Officer. We are excited to extend our collaboration with Hillstream Biopharma to evaluate potential synergy between their HSB-1216 molecule and ICIs using our expertise in establishing patient tissue-derived cell models in oncology, immunology and Immune-oncology Previously, Sapien demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity of HSB-1216 in primary triple negative breast cancer cells which were presented at AACR 2020.” Dr. Jugnu Jain, CEO, Sapien Biosciences.

Read More

MEDTECH

Carl Zeiss Meditec and Precise Bio Announce Partnership in the Development and Commercialization of Tissue-Based Implants for Ophthalmology

Precise Bio | July 19, 2022

Carl Zeiss Meditec and Precise Bio, a regenerative medicine company advancing the use of bio-printed tissues and organs, announced today that the companies have entered into a partnership to develop and commercialize fabricated corneal tissue for transplants in patients that require endothelial keratoplasty and natural lenticule transplants for treating keratoconus and vision correction. Under the terms of the agreement, Carl Zeiss Meditec will invest in Precise Bio and fund the further development of Precise Bio's two cornea transplant products and has exclusive worldwide commercialization rights for these products. Financial terms were not disclosed. "This investment in Precise Bio is expected to complement our leading portfolio of cataract and corneal refractive workflow solutions. The technology has the potential to advance treatment options for corneal disease, as well as for elective procedures – furthering enabling optimization of patient care." Euan S. Thomson, PhD, President of Ophthalmic Devices and Head of the Digital Business Unit for Carl Zeiss Meditec "We are very excited with this partnership that builds on our successful, ongoing collaboration with ZEISS for the development of corneal tissues to address unmet needs in the field of ophthalmology," stated Aryeh Batt, Co- Founder and CEO of Precise Bio. "This strategic agreement leverages ZEISS' global leadership in ophthalmology and Precise' innovative and unique 4D bio-fabrication platform technology. We are confident that the synergy between the two companies will allow us to develop breakthrough solutions for recovering patients' eyesight, bringing hope to hundreds of millions of patients worldwide." Precise Bio combines engineering, biomaterials, cell technology, bioengineering, and 3D printing into an unparalleled 4D bio-fabrication platform for transplantable organs and tissues. The Company's proprietary platform technology allows to fabricate tissues by 'printing' cells in a single-cell resolution and spatial accuracy, enabling complex organoid constructs with both structural integrity and long-term cell viability. Overcoming multiple technology challenges, Precise Bio's 4D bio-fabrication technology allows to reliably scale up tissue engineering for clinical use, and produce large quantities in a reproducible, quality controlled and cost-effective process. Precise Bio's ophthalmological pipeline consists of three products, the two cornea products that are the subject of the collaboration with Carl Zeiss Meditec and a retinal implant for age-related macular degeneration, all of which demonstrated successful results in animal models. The Company's ophthalmological products address global markets exceeding $10 billion annually. Bio-fabricated tissues comprised of human cells and natural materials, mimicking the anatomical structure and natural tissue components, can replace damaged or diseased tissue, substitute for donor tissue in cases where there is lack of tissue or solve unmet therapeutic needs. About ZEISS Carl Zeiss Meditec AG AX and TecDAX of the German stock exchange, is one of the world's leading medical technology companies. The Company supplies innovative technologies and application-oriented solutions designed to help doctors improve the quality of life of their patients. The Company offers complete solutions, including implants and consumables, to diagnose and treat eye diseases. The Company creates innovative visualization solutions in the field of microsurgery. With approximately 3,531 employees worldwide, the Group generated revenue of €1,646.8m in fiscal year 2020/2. The Group's head office is located in Jena, Germany, and it has subsidiaries in Germany and abroad; more than 50 percent of its employees are based in the USA, Japan, Spain and France. The Center for Application and Research ore, India and the Carl Zeiss Innovations Center for Research and Development in Shanghai, China, strengthen the Company's presence in these rapidly developing economies. Around 41 percent of Carl Zeiss Meditec AG's shares are in free float. The remaining approx. 59 percent are held by Carl Zeiss AG, one of the world's leading groups in the optical and optoelectronic industries. About Precise Bio Precise Bio develops regenerative medicine therapies that can transform patient care across a wide range of medical indications. Precise Bio's proprietary, break-through 4D bio-fabricating platform overcomes limitations of existing extrusion and ink-jet printers and paves the way for fabricating clinically viable tissues and organs. The Company's initial product pipeline is focused on ophthalmology and includes fabricated functional corneal grafts, intrastromal lenticules for treating keratoconus and vision correction, and a retinal implant for age-related macular degeneration. The Company also has earlier R&D programs to address unmet needs in additional medical indications, which are limited by the number of available donor tissues and organs, or where today's critical health problems can be solved using Precise Bio's naturally-based, hyper-accurate technology.

Read More